Both experimental and theoretical studies have been published demonstrating the reduction in flux of solvent when polymer is adsorbed on the wall of a flow channel Y.
The protocol employed was the same as that described for Example 1 control experiment; test solution poured into reservoir 38, and used as a treatment solution. Compressed air forces liquid contained in a supply reservoir through the plug and into a collection reservoir. To test the effect of multiple treatments of hair, the treatment solution 1 A description of the clairol herbal essence reservoir 39 was again flowed through the flow cell 14 for 5 minutes in five second pulses.
Generally such systems measure the sample in a static mode in which the sample is manually loaded, unloaded and then reloaded for each step of the procedure. Magnesium lauryl sulfate shows virtually no binding to hair and is very rapidly rinsed out from the plug. For these colloidal suspensions, electrostatic repulsion operates between particles of like charge to stabilize the particles against collisions that lead to irreversible coagulation.
Five pulses of A description of the clairol herbal essence treatment liquid 1, from reservoir 38, is flowed through the cell 14 over a 5-minute period. Conductivity decrease is very slow, suggesting strong binding of the anionic detergent to the hair surface.
The first 5 data points in FIGS. The streaming of the liquid through the permeable body produces an electrokinetic force current or potential which may be measured. A method for the measurement of streaming potential and conductivity as in claim 19 and further measuring the pressure of the liquids using a liquid pressure transducer connected to flow lines from the reservoirs to the flow cell, said liquid pressure transducer being connected to said computer system means.
The reservoirs are air-tight and have liquid flow output linesrespectively, which lead to manual two-way valvesrespectively. Note that the anionic polymers of Example 8, as well as cationic polymers Example 6 do not exhibit slip flow behavior, and no enhancement in plug permeability is observed after the treatment with these polymers.
After the treatment, the zeta potential of hair decreases due to an excess of free electrolyte in the plug, then increases to more negative values compared to the untreated hair surface, and finally decreases again after extended rinsing with the test solution.
In order to alleviate the sources of irreproducibility related to pad formation, and to obtain additional information about the kinetics of the sorption and desorption processes, streaming potential, conductivity, and permeability, measurements are performed in a dynamic mode as a function of rinsing time before and after on-line treatments with various active agents.
The concentration of the treatment solutions was 1. It consists of a computer-controlled two-way valve 30 and an air hose leading from ballast 31 air tank to a source of pressurized air Investigation of the interactions of anionic detergents with hair were performed by using lauryl sulfates with various counterions such as sodium, ammonium, triethanolammonium TEAand magnesium.
Aqueous solutions of natural polysaccharides, accacia and alginic acid were used as the treatment solutions at a concentration of 0. Example 2 This example illustrates the use of the instrument for the analysis of the interactions of hair with anionic surfactants. A test solution, to obtain base measurement, is poured into reservoirs 38 and 39 and consists of an aqueous solution of KCl at a concentration of 5 M.
A system as in claim 9 and further including a liquid pressure transducer connected to said flow lines to measure the pressure therein, said liquid pressure transducer being connected to said computer system means.
The applied potential necessary to reduce the net flow of electricity to zero is the streaming potential. The procedure employed was the same as that described for Example 1.
Nonionic emulsion modifies the surface only to a small extent as judged from relatively small changes in the streaming and zeta potentials.
The system, under software control, will automatically apply a series of pulses of dilute test solution of a neutral salt through the test cell.
I am absolutely in love with the smell. It is a further objective of the present invention to provide such a system and method for such analysis of a fiber surface to determine the effect on the surface and bulk properties of the fiber of i cationic surfactants, cationic polymers, proteins and low molecular weight organic compounds; ii reactive treatments, including hair waving treatment, bleaching and dyeing; and iii treatment with multicomponent liquids, such as commercially available hair conditioning shampoos and conditioners.
Between each polymer solution the apparatus is cleaned. The control coil of the relay 19 is electrically connected to the solenoid and relay control board 24, which is controlled by the computer 10 through the digital signal line The duration of the "on" pulses is 5 seconds to 5 minutes and preferably 15 seconds to seconds.
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